On 25 April 2017, the operator responsibilities for the Asse II mine as well as the Konrad and Morsleben repositories were transferred to the Federal Company for Radioactive Waste Disposal (Bundesgesellschaft für Endlagerung mbH, BGE). This website of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) will therefore no longer be updated and displays the status as on 24 April 2017. You will find current information at the BGE: www.bge.de

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Englischsprachiges Glossar

Magnesium chlorideshow / hide

Magnesium salt, chemical formula MgCl2.

Magnesium depotshow / hide

Brucite-containing (Mg(OH)2) material favourably influencing the development of the chemical ambience in the emplacement areas.

Magnetic fieldshow / hide

State of the space which manifests itself in force action on magnetic dipoles (magnetic needles). Force field caused among others by moved electric charges. Magnetic fields occur in the vicinity of conductors flown through by current and permanent magnets. In the case of permanent magnets fluxes inside the atom of the moving electrons are the cause of the magnetic field. The magnetic field strength H marks strength and direction of the magnetic field, its measure is Ampere per metre (A/m). Besides the magnetic field strength also the magnetic flux density B describes the strength of the magnetic field, the measure is Tesla (T). 1 T = 1 Vs/m², the measure Microtesla (µT) is common. The following applies to the conversion of magnetic flux density into magnetic field intensity in the air or in biological tissue: 1 µT corresponds to 0.8 A/m.

Magnetic field strength show / hide

Measure of the strength and direction of the magnetic field. The measure is Ampere per metre (A/m).

Magnetic flux density show / hide

Quantity describing the induction effect of the magnetic field, the measure is Tesla (T). Magnetic flux density and magnetic field strength are connected through permeability µ (a material constant).

Magnetic induction show / hide

Magnetic flux density, measure of the number of magnetic field lines per area. The measure is Tesla (T). 1 T = 1 Vs/m² (Volt second per square metre).

Magnetic Resonance Tomography (MRT) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)show / hide

Magnetic Resonance Tomography is also called MRT or MRI. Magnetic Resonance Tomography is a cross-sectional imaging technique with high soft tissue contrast especially suited for the visualization of the structure and function of organs and tissues. MRT does not use ionizing radiation or radioactive substances, but strong magnetic fields and electromagnetic radiofrequency fields.

Magnitudeshow / hide

Logarithmic measure of the seismic wave energy released by an earthquake. It is derived from seismic registrations.

Main pit ventilation systemshow / hide

Supplies the mine shafts with fresh air by creating an artificial air flow.

Main roadshow / hide

Gallery driven, following the strike of the deposit.

Malmshow / hide

A term for the Upper Jurassic Age (White Jurassic) ca. 156 to 140 million years ago.

Man haulageshow / hide

Transportation of persons in the shaft with the help of the shaft hoisting equipment.

Mean value show / hide

The mean value (arithmetical) corresponds to the sum of all values of a variable X divided by the number n of the values.

Median show / hide

The median is the value which divides the distribution of a variable X exactly in two halves, therefore also the alternative term central value.

Meta studies show / hide

Studies where the results of different investigations on a certain topic are compared, summarised and evaluated according to certain parameters.

Microsievertshow / hide

The Sievert (Sv) is the unit (SI-unit) of dose equivalent and effective dose.

In general, fractions of the unit of dose are used in radiation protection practice: 1 Sievert = 1 000 millisieverts (mSv) = 1 000 000 microsieverts (µSv) = 1 000 000 000 nanosieverts (nSv).

1 microsievert is one millionth sievert = 0.000001 sievert.

Dose is often related to a period of time, i.e. per year (mSv/a) or per hour (mSv/h).

Migrationshow / hide

Movement of water, solutions, oil and gas through porous and permeable rocks and rock layers.

Millimeter waves show / hide

Millimeter waves belong to the extremely high frequency band of electromagnetic radiation with frequencies from 30 to 300 gigahertz (GHz) and wavelengths between 10 millimeter and 1 millimeter.

Millisievertshow / hide

The Sievert (Sv) is the unit (SI-unit) of dose equivalent and effective dose.

In general, fractions of the unit of dose are used in radiation protection practice: 1 sievert = 1 000 millisieverts (mSv) = 1 000 000 microsieverts (µSv) = 1 000 000 000 nanosieverts (nSv).

1 millisievert is a one thousandth sievert = 0.001 sievert.

Dose is often related to a period of time, i.e. per year (mSv/a) or per hour (mSv/h).

Mine airshow / hide

Air in the mine, drawn off because of its reduced oxygen content or respectively its content of harmful gases.

Mine openingshow / hide

Planned cavity underground produced by mining measures.

Mine openingsshow / hide

Generic term for all cavities underground in a mine produced by mining measures.

mine surveyshow / hide

Surveying in mining.

mining districtshow / hide

Cavity methodically produced through mining where no radioactive waste is emplaced.

Mining fieldshow / hide

Area below the surface of the earth where a mineral deposit is mined.

mixing liquidshow / hide

Liquid for the production of building materials.

Moderator show / hide

In a nuclear reactor, a moderator serves to slow free neutrons produced in the reactor core during the fission process. Similar to billiard balls, neutrons collide with the nuclei of the moderator and thus give off part of their kinetic energy. Since the largest energy transfers occur in the elastic collisions of two equally heavy particles, light atoms such as hydrogen (in the form of water or polyethylene) and carbon (in the form of graphite) are mostly used as moderator. The slowed neutrons are better suitable for both continuing the fission in the reactor core and carrying out scientific experiments in a research reactor.

Modulationshow / hide

Change of one or more parameters of a high-frequency carrier wave for the transmittance of information. E. g. in radio programmes (carrier in the MHz range) language (kHz-range) is transmitted by frequency modulation by changing the frequency of the carrier wave in the rhythm of the language signal. Other procedures are amplitude (medium wave) modulation, frequency (UKW) modulation or phase (beam radio) modulation.

Molecular biology show / hide

Molecular biology is an interdisciplinary science dealing with the molecular structures and functions in living organisms.

Moleculeshow / hide

A molecule is a group of atoms held together by chemical bonds. A molecule can consist of several atoms of the same chemical element or atoms of different elements.
The hydrogen molecule consists of atoms of the same chemical element: H2 = 2 hydrogen atoms (H: chemical symbol for hydrogen).
The water molecule, in contrast, consists of atoms of different chemical elements: H2O = 2 hydrogen atoms + 1 oxygen atom (O: chemical symbol for oxygen).

monitored areasshow / hide

Areas where persons can receive per calendar year an effective dose above 1 mSv or organ doses above 15 mSv for the eye lens or 50 mSv for the skin, hands, forearms, feet, and ankles.

Monochloride show / hide

Chemical substance

Monomere show / hide

Monomers are in the strict sense single molecules.

  • Chemistry: The organic chemist understands monomers to be molecules with a reactive double bond or with functional groups. These can react with each other to long chain molecules, the polymers.
  • Biochemistry: In the case of proteins (white of egg) the term "monomer" means the existence of a single subunit. Some proteins are composed of several monomers.

Morbidity show / hide

Incidence, number of diseases within a population

Mortality show / hide

Death rate

Myokardszintigraphie show / hide

Nuclear medical examination of the heart (Myocardium = heart muscle) for the evaluation of the myocardial circulation and ventricular function of the heart.

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